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Since the beginning of time, human beings have sought to understand what the universe and everything within it is made up of. And while ancient magi and philosophers conceived of a world composed of four or five elements — earth, air, water, fire and metal, or consciousness — by classical antiquity, philosophers began to theorize that all matter was actually made up of tiny, invisible, and indivisible atoms. Since that time, scientists have engaged in a process of ongoing discovery with the atom, hoping to discover its true nature and makeup.

Spectral Lines of Hydrogen Atom

By the 20th century, our understanding became refined to the point that we were able to construct an accurate model of it. And within the past decade, our understanding has advanced even further, to the point that we have come to confirm the existence of almost all of its theorized parts.

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Today, atomic research is focused on studying the structure and the function of matter at the subatomic level. This not only consists of identifying all the subatomic particles that are thought to make up an atom, but investigating the forces that govern them. These include strong nuclear forces, weak nuclear forces, electromagnetism and gravity.

Our current model of the atom can be broken down into three constituents parts — protons, neutron, and electrons.

Basic Chemistry Tutorial 2, Drawing Atoms

Each of these parts has an associated charge, with protons carrying a positive charge, electrons having a negative charge, and neutrons possessing no net charge. The electrons in an atom are attracted to the protons in the nucleus by the electromagnetic force.

Electrons can escape from their orbit, but only in response to an external source of energy being applied. The closer orbit of the electron to the nucleus, the greater the attractive force; hence, the stronger the external force needed to cause an electron to escape. Electrons orbit the nucleus in multiple orbits, each of which corresponds to a particular energy level of the electron.

The electron can change its state to a higher energy level by absorbing a photon with sufficient energy to boost it into the new quantum state. Likewise, an electron in a higher energy state can drop to a lower energy state while radiating the excess energy as a photon.

Atoms are electrically neutral if they have an equal number of protons and electrons. Atoms that have either a deficit or a surplus of electrons are called ions. Electrons that are farthest from the nucleus may be transferred to other nearby atoms or shared between atoms. By this mechanism, atoms are able to bond into molecules and other types of chemical compounds.

All three of these subatomic particles are Fermions, a class of particle associated with matter that is either elementary electrons or composite protons and neutrons in nature.

This means that electrons have no known internal structure, whereas protons and neutrons are made up of other subatomic particles. There are two types of quarks in atoms, which have a fractional electric charge. The Standard Model elementary particles.

Other subatomic particles include Leptons, which combine with Fermions to form the building blocks of matter. There are six leptons in the present atomic model: the electron, muon, and tau particles, and their associated neutrinos.

For instance, gluons are responsible for the strong nuclear force that holds quarks together while W and Z bosons still hypothetical are believed to be responsible for the weak nuclear force behind electromagnetism. Photons are the elementary particle that makes up light, while the Higgs Boson is responsible for giving the W and Z bosons their mass.

Protons have a mass that is 1, times that of the electron, at 1. For example, the element Carbon is so-named because it has a mass number of 12 — derived from its 12 nucleons six protons and six neutrons. However, elements are also arranged based on their atomic numbers, which is the same as the number of protons found in the nucleus.

In this case, Carbon has an atomic number of 6. The actual mass of an atom at rest is very difficult to measure, as even the most massive of atoms are too light to express in conventional units.In this article we will discuss about DNA:- 1. Introduction to DNA 2. Structure of DNA Molecule 3. Nucleoside 4. Deoxyribonucleotide 5. Polynucleotide 6. Different Forms 9. Super-Twisting DNA Bending Unusual Structures Biological Significance or Properties DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid is a type of nucleic acid.

It is present in all living cells of bacteria, trees, dogs, cats and human.


Some viruses also contain DNA. Once DNA was recognised as the substance of heredity, research was focused on the way the DNA is chemically constructed. As a result, to study the chemical nature and the molecular architecture of DNA, several methods of extraction of highly purified DNA from a wide variety of organisms and viruses and its chemical analysis were developed.

Chemical analysis of highly purified DNA have shown that it is made of four kinds of monomeric building blocks, each of which contains three types of molecules:.

The phosphoric acid H 3 P0 4 is biologically called phosphate and it was discovered by Levene in Phosphoric acid Fig. It is a five-carbon sugar; hence it is a pentose sugar. D-ribose does not mean dextrorotary ribose.

It is actually a form of stereoisomer [Fig.In an article below Michael Netzer presents a new alternative geometric structure of a Hydrogen atoms nucleus, and thus the basis of all nuclei.

Without some introduction, the value of this may easily be missed. Neal Adams developed a theory around a known Positron and a known Electron combining together to form a Prime Matter particle. The breakthrough brilliance of this idea was that all matter that we can sense is a form of electromagnetic force. Where is it? In Prime Matter he theorizes that the matter is all around us but is cloaked into apparent invisibility. That the Positron and Electron are united by an electromagnetic force, but that this force is inward facing and thus not yet detectible with our current instruments.

Some facts to review when considering why the below Netzer article could be of significance:. The New Hydrogen Nucleus Structure is a geometric model which demonstrates a count calculation of the layered Prime Matter particles bound by the force of a core positron, to form a proton.

As an electron is attracted to the new proton, a new Hydrogen atom is born. In his elegant theory for emergence of new atomic matter in the universe, Neal Adams states that new protons effectively emerge in the cores of celestial bodies through layered accumulation of Prime Matter particles around a positron, in a process commencing with Pair Production.

A Prime Matter particle is the combined electron and positron fields which are theorized to neutralize each other upon converging in the Positronium state, thus rendering themselves undetectable and are assumed to annihilate.

Each Prime Matter particle carries an electron weight of two 2one positron and one electron. The accumulated electron weight of the predicted Prime Matter particles in the model is thereforesame as the electron weight of a proton.

A verifiable calculation of the number of particles in a geometrically sound model is considered crucial to the veracity of Positron-to-Proton Theory.

DNA: Structure, Forms and Functions (With Diagram)

In his Prime Matter videoNeal states that a cube of five 5 Prime Matter particle layers are held together by a core positron.

The number of particles in each respective cube layer is demonstrated visually as being a succession of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 particles to each side of the cube layers. It is also stated that because corner particles are further away from the core, they would tend to not adhere to the cube. That upon removing 10 particles from each corner total of 80 particles for the 8 corners of the cube the remaining result would be particles plus the core positron. The images above, captured from the Prime Matter video, demonstrate the succession of layers added to form the cube 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 particle to each side and culminating in the more rounded geometrical result achieved when the corner particles are removed.

It is then stated in the video that after removing the 80 corner particles, we are left withafter which we subtract the core positron particle and the predicted result of particles is achieved. An underlying principle of the strong force binding a proton is that the cube model must be packed to the utmost degree of tightness possible — and that the positron must reside in the absolute center of a geometrically sound model.

However, as evident in the video and captured images, and as demonstrated in these images above, the positron cannot reside in the center of a model which has an even number of particles to each of its sides. This geometric discrepancy gravely compromises the integrity of the model. Only a geometry of odd numbered particles to each side of the cube, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 particles to each side, as in images above can yield a geometrically sound model where the positron is at the absolute center core of the model — and the particles are packed together to the utmost tightness.

However, a calculation of the particles in a model with the above parameters yields a result nowhere near the predicted particles. More than a dozen further attempts, using varying possible parameters that might yield a number within the proximity of particles for the cube model also failed. In a following communication with Keith, we discussed the geometric and mathematical discrepancies, and how Neal might have overlooked them in asserting a positive result.

Keith pointed out that the cube model allows no room for nesting of particles which would pack them more tightly together around the positron. I then began to consider another geometric basis for the model that would begin with a more spherical form — rather than arrive at it by removing the corners from a cube.

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Using Blender software, an Open Source 3-D modeling program, I began by creating a sphere, tightly contained within a ring of 6 equally sized spheres, which fit perfectly around it. A new geometric form for the model began to emerge. A hexagonal formation around the positron provides for a more tightly packed model and a more spherical initial form upon which to build it. In this formation, six 6 particles pack tightly and adjacent to the core positron particle in the first layer row, while in the cube formation only four 4 particles touch the core positron.

A hexagon model allows for nesting of particles, rows and layers into the recesses between the adjacent spherical particles, allowing more particles to be packed tightly to the positron. The model then grows by expanding each hexagon row and adding additional ones above and below, all nested tightly between the particles, maintaining a hexagon form. As each row is added and expanded, the tight packing of particles and hexagon model integrity are maintained. Until the model achieves seven 7 hexagon rows above and 7 rows below the largest center row which contains the positron particle.

The six 6 corner particles of each hexagon in all the 15 rows of this model are removed, falling off as they do in the cube model, further rounding out the formation.

However, the middle row is unique in that it is the single largest hexagon and both layers above and below it recede from it too sharply.DNA is a double helix of two anti-parallel, complementary strands having a phosphate-sugar backbone with nitrogenous bases stacked inside. The monomeric building blocks of DNA are deoxyribomononucleotides usually referred to as just nucleotidesand DNA is formed from linear chains, or polymers, of these nucleotides.

The components of the nucleotide used in DNA synthesis are a nitrogenous base, a deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. The nucleotide is named depending on which nitrogenous base is present.

Atom Diagrams Showing Electron Shell Configurations of the Elements

The nitrogenous base can be a purine such as adenine A and guanine Gcharacterized by double-ring structures, or a pyrimidine such as cytosine C and thymine Tcharacterized by single-ring structures.

In polynucleotides the linear polymers of nucleotides the nucleotides are connected to each other by covalent bonds known as phosphodiester bonds or phosphodiester linkages.

Nucleotide Structure : Each nucleotide is made up of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. In their mononucleotide form, nucleotides can have one, two, or three phosphates attached to them. When linked together in polynucleotide chains, the nucleotides always have just one phosphate. A molecule with just a nitrogenous base and a sugar is known as a nucleoside. Once at least one phosphate is covalently attached, it is known as a nucleotide.

Watson and Crick proposed that DNA is made up of two polynucleotide strands that are twisted around each other to form a right-handed helix. The two polynucleotide strands are anti-parallel in nature. That is, they run in opposite directions. The sugars and phosphates of the nucleotides form the backbone of the structure, whereas the pairs of nitrogenous bases are pointed towards the interior of the molecule. The twisting of the two strands around each other results in the formation of uniformly-spaced major and minor grooves bordered by the sugar-phosphate backbones of the two strands.

The two anti-parallel polynucleotide strands are colored differently to illustrate how they coil around each other. B is a cartoon model of DNA, where the sugar-phosphate backbones are represented as violet strands and the nitrogenous bases are represented as color-coded rings. C is another spacefill model, with the sugar-phosphate atoms colored violet and all nitrogenous base atoms colored green. The major and minor grooves, which wrap around the entire molecule, are apparent as the spaces between the sugar-phosphate backbones.

The diameter of the DNA double helix is 2 nm and is uniform throughout. Only the pairing between a purine and pyrimidine can explain the uniform diameter.

labeled diagram of hydrogen atom diagram base website

That is to say, at each point along the DNA molecule, the two sugar phosphate backbones are always separated by three rings, two from a purine and one from a pyrimidine. The two strands are held together by base pairing between nitrogenous bases of one strand and nitrogenous bases from the other strand.Atoms are made up of particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons, which are responsible for the mass and charge of atoms. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains all of the chemical properties of an element.

Atoms combine to form molecules, which then interact to form solids, gases, or liquids. For example, water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms that have combined to form water molecules. Many biological processes are devoted to breaking down molecules into their component atoms so they can be reassembled into a more useful molecule.

Atoms consist of three basic particles: protons, electrons, and neutrons. The nucleus center of the atom contains the protons positively charged and the neutrons no charge. The outermost regions of the atom are called electron shells and contain the electrons negatively charged.

Atoms have different properties based on the arrangement and number of their basic particles. The hydrogen atom H contains only one proton, one electron, and no neutrons. This can be determined using the atomic number and the mass number of the element see the concept on atomic numbers and mass numbers.

Structure of an atom : Elements, such as helium, depicted here, are made up of atoms. Atoms are made up of protons and neutrons located within the nucleus, with electrons in orbitals surrounding the nucleus. Protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass, about 1. Scientists define this amount of mass as one atomic mass unit amu or one Dalton.

Although similar in mass, protons are positively charged, while neutrons have no charge. Therefore, the number of neutrons in an atom contributes significantly to its mass, but not to its charge. Electrons are much smaller in mass than protons, weighing only 9. In these atoms, the positive and negative charges cancel each other out, leading to an atom with no net charge.

Both protons and neutrons have a mass of 1 amu and are found in the nucleus. Exploring Electron Properties : Compare the behavior of electrons to that of other charged particles to discover properties of electrons such as charge and mass. Accounting for the sizes of protons, neutrons, and electrons, most of the volume of an atom—greater than 99 percent—is, in fact, empty space.

Despite all this empty space, solid objects do not just pass through one another. The electrons that surround all atoms are negatively charged and cause atoms to repel one another, preventing atoms from occupying the same space.

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These intermolecular forces prevent you from falling through an object like your chair. Interactive: Build an Atom : Build an atom out of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and see how the element, charge, and mass change.

Then play a game to test your ideas! The atomic number is the number of protons in an element, while the mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. Determine the relationship between the mass number of an atom, its atomic number, its atomic mass, and its number of subatomic particles.

Neutral atoms of an element contain an equal number of protons and electrons.For that, we have electron shell diagrams.

For each electron shell atom diagram, the element symbol is listed in the nucleus. The electron shells are shown, moving outward from the nucleus.

labeled diagram of hydrogen atom diagram base website

The element atomic number and name are listed in the upper left. An ion of an atom is one in which the number of protons and electrons is not the same. If there are more protons than electrons, an atomic ion has a positive charge and is called a cation. If there are more electrons than protons, the ion has a negative charge and is called an anion. Elements are shown from atomic number 1 hydrogen up to 94 plutonium.

Lithium is the first element in which an additional electron shell is added. Remember, the valence electrons are found in the outermost shell. The filling of the electron shells depends on their orbital. The first orbital an s orbital can contain only two electrons. Share Flipboard Email. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert. Helmenstine holds a Ph. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels.

Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter. Updated November 05, The Hydrogen Atom?

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Student Guide Background Material Carefully read the background pages entitled Energy Levels, Light, and Transitions and answer the following questions to check your understanding. Name: The Hydrogen Atom?

Question 1: Complete the following table which compares how the Bohr Model and the Quantum model represent the Hydrogen atom. In some cases they both describe things in the same way and in some cases they do not. The first row is completed for you:? A red photon has a larger wavelength, smaller frequency, smaller energy, and the same velocity through space as a blue photon?.

Red larger the same smaller larger the same smaller larger the same smaller larger the same smaller larger the same smaller Velocity in space larger the same smaller larger the same smaller larger the same smaller larger the same smaller larger the same smaller Photon B Blue Orange Visual Microwave Gamma-ray Question 3: Scientists often say?

A is proportional to B? They also? A is inversely proportional to C? Inspect the table above for evidence of such relationships and use these terms to describe the relationships between wavelength, frequency, energy, and velocity. Introduction The Hydrogen Atom Simulator allows one to view the interaction of an idealized Hydrogen atom with photons of various wavelengths.

This atom is far from the influence of neighboring atoms and is not moving. The simulator consists of four panels. Below gives a brief overview of the basics of the simulator. The panel in the upper left shows the Bohr Model: the proton, electron, and the first six orbitals with the correct relative spacing. The simulator will a short time later absorb an electron. Once it is released it will behave?

labeled diagram of hydrogen atom diagram base website

The upper right panel labeled? Photon Selection? Photons of longer wavelengths are shown as red and shorter wavelengths as violet. Event Log? Exercises For any particular level of the Hydrogen atom one can think of the photons that interact with it as being in three groups: Range 1 None of the photons have enough energy to affect the atom. Increasing Energy? Range 2 Some of the photons have the right energy to make the electrons to jump to a higher energy level i.

Range 3 All the photons have enough energy to ionize the atom.